Prevention Chronic Disease – majority of students support the smoke-free policy

Smoke-free Policies amongst  students

According to the Support Among Middle School and High School Students for Smoke-free Policies, North Carolina article, the majority of to eliminate secondhand smoking from public places as well as to help prevent tobacco use in children.
The prevention of the secondhand smoking (SHS) is the outcome health focus on this article; any form of SHS is unhealthy especially in the long-term exposure. The method of study design used was the North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey, which yielded 80 questions from the sampling of middle school children in grades sixth to twelve.
The children that supported the smoke-free policy was non-smokers as well as smokers that wanted to quit their tobacco habit. The number one area for the smoke-free support was indoor places. The research suggested that the policy would have a great impact in the reduction of 20% to 50% of exposure to secondhand smoking by the students (Kandra, McCullough, Ranney & Goldstein, 2009).
Pursuing this further, with this promising research survey most smoke-free policies that are currently in effect only covers the indoor venues from SHS. Some states such as Washington State prohibit smoking outside dining areas and bars. As testing on SHS progresses, I believe that stricter smoking laws will eventually be put in effect. On a personal note, my local hospital will not hire “new hires” that smoke. All applicants have to take a nicotine test to prove they are non-smokers to work at that particular facility.
The leading cause of death by smoking is the cardiovascular disease (Uren, 2008), which can lead to Coronary and Cerebral thrombosis that can cause blood clots, heart attack, and even dementia. In addition to, smoking can cause Mouth and Lung cancer, which can cause high blood pressure and asthma and death. The most effective method of prevention of tobacco use and secondhand smoking is to quit tobacco use and limit one’s exposure to SHS. And eat a healthy diet and exercise to promote a healthy heart and lifestyle.


            Kandra KL, McCullough A, Ranney L, Goldstein AO. Support Among Middle School and High School Students for Smoke-free Policies, North Carolina, 2009. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120135. DOI:

Uren, N. (2008, January 01). Coronary thombosis (heart attack). Retrieved from

Infectious Disease and Focus

Infectious Disease and Focus
Infectious Disease and Focus
It is critical for public health to stay focused and incorporate the latest techniques in preventing infectious disease in America. The past has shown various of diseases such as the Polio and the Chicken pox that is now under control due to the assistance of public health. New viruses and diseases will develop in the future, and it is our public health job and duty to discover it and monitor it. Moreover, to control the latest virus before it can cause harm to the general public.
According to the Introduction to Public Health book, the unsettled news of new antibiotic resistance to infectious disease (Schneider, 2011) is a great example why public health needs to be relevant.
There are several ways that public health can prevent the feeling of being smug concerning infectious disease. The first method is to remember that public health works behind the scene and gets honors when an onset, such as the latest flu shortage of vaccines in several states gets media coverage. The second utility that public health uses are they continuously updates their main sites with new relevant information both locally and on a state level. The third example, of how public health gets their message across to the masses is via all their government funded programs such as schools and other places in the community. The public education system has the tools to help prevent the spread of viruses and diseases amongst the students. All student requires being vaccinated before they can start school.

Public health plays an important part of our lives whether we recognize it or not, it is all around us, and that is a comforting to know.


            Schneider, M. (2011). Introduction to public health. (3rd ed.). Sunbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)

According to the Announcement: Cervical Cancer Awareness Month article of January 2013 article, the epidemiology undertaking of cervical cancer is exceptional. The data that are collected for the study is demographics, and test results from the doctors and clinics throughout the United States. The test results consist of the Papanicolaou test, which screen for different types of cancers it is given to the woman in the age group of 21 to the age of 65.
The test result shows that 50% of cervical cancer materialize in the woman that do not have the Papanicolaou (Pap Smear) test done. Also, another 10% to 20% get cancer because they failed to get the recommended following up care by their physician (“Announcement: Cervical cancer,” 2013).
The best recommendation is to prevent this disease is to get the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. It is recommended to take all the three doses for the maximum result and protection. Children as young as 11 years old and people with the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) can all get this vaccine.
The policy markers can use the data statistics to plan inventory on the HPV vaccine better. Besides that, they can also better educate the public about the benefits of getting tested and vaccinated. Several years ago people did not like the idea of having their young children, especially girls to be immunized against the HPV because of the fear of unproven side effects. The media have played a role in the hysteria, for example, Michele Bachmann told the public that the vaccine could lead to retardation. This is an excellent example of how the politicians can make wrong choices in their decision making if they are not educated on the facts.


            Announcement: Cervical cancer awareness month — january 2013. (2013, january 04). Retrieved from


Recall Bias

Recall bias

Recall Bias

   Recall Bias presents several examples of how it can occur in the epidemiological studies. According to, the Recall Bias Can Be a Threat to Retrospective and Prospective Research Designs article here are the factors:

  1. Self-reported information can cause a bias by announcing past event differently than the intended study groups.
  2. There is a high risk of misclassification by errors of recall patterns
  3. Recall bias is also a concern in some randomized controlled trials as well as prospective cohort experiments.

The solution to lessen recall bias in trials is to utilize a well-standardized survey. In the same way, to conduct study hypothesis using blind volunteers and data input (Hassan, 2006).

The Project-Based Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Alcohol Problems: Within-Subjects Analyses of 2-Year Alcohol Trajectories article display how to recall bias may influence the study results. The two-year research project was conducted on 95 homeless people living in a none prohibit alcohol housing facility. The initial thought was these housing facilities would promote alcohol among the homeless. In contrast, the trial revealed that it decreased the use of alcohol consumption amongst the residents (Collins, S. E., Malone, D. K., Clifasefi, S. L., Ginzler, J. A., Garner, M. D., Burlingham, B., & … Larimer, M. E. 2012).

Recall bias may have impacted this study because of the allowance of the participants to self-report of their results. The follow-up interview survey was conducted every three months. The baseline started with 100% of participation but by 24 months the participation was down to 61% for the surveys. Another interesting idea to think about is, did the homeless participants produce a better outcome because they were paid $20.00 per survey?

In conclusion, there are very few trials that have been conducted on the homeless health especially concerning alcohol use. In this experiment, some of the volunteers had an illness such as HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis this could also have altered the study. The good news is that alcohol use amongst the homeless will drop short term with the help of education, intervention, and resources.




            Collins, S. E., Malone, D. K., Clifasefi, S. L., Ginzler, J. A., Garner, M. D., Burlingham, B., & … Larimer, M. E. (2012). Project-Based Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Alcohol Problems: Within-Subjects Analyses of 2-Year Alcohol Trajectories. American Journal Of Public Health, 102(3), 511-519. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300403

  1. Hassan: Recall Bias can be a Threat to Retrospective and Prospective Research Designs. The Internet Journal of Epidemiology. 2006 Volume 3 Number 2. DOI: 10.5580/2732 – See more at:


Hepatitis E Virus


Hepatitis E Virus
According to the Hepatitis E virus in pork liver sausage France article of the emerging infectious disease, the Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has a high risk of human infection. The virus is spread via the consumptions of sausages produced in France by various manufacturers (Grierson, Hakze-van der Honing, Martelli, Johne, Reetz & Berto, 2013).
Interestingly enough, 20% of the world is infected by the HEV pathogen, which got contracted by food or water contamination. It is easy to get infected by the virus, all one has to do is eat undercooked pig liver and in some cases reported in Japan undercooked deer meat. The virus hit target cells, and duplicates in the human liver and particles can be found in the bowel movements in the first week of the infection.
The human hosting of the Hepatitis E virus can last up to nine weeks, but most commonly the virus lasts up to two weeks. Typical symptoms are fever, jaundice, and abdominal pain. The downfall to HEV is that it can be fatal amongst pregnant woman (“Pathogen Profile Dictionary,” 2010). On a positive note, the Hepatitis E virus is a short-term disease, so it does not become a chronic illness.
The HEV is a single-stranded virus that does not link to any common diseases. The virus was discovered in New Deli, India in 1955. The scientist called this virus the intestinal virus also known as enteric hepatitis hence the letter E.
The epidemiologic surveillance has been effective in western countries to find the disease and prevent another major outbreak. In the past, it was believed that HEV was only found in countries that lack water treatment systems. One of the largest most recent outbreaks was 2007 in Uganda which caused 160 deaths, and over 10,000 people became infected with the virus (Teshale, Howard,Grytdal,Handzel,Barry & Kamili, 2010). The role of the epidemiologic surveillance team is to conduct surveys in the affected areas and narrow it down to a water source or a food source.
There is no immunization against the Hepatitis E virus, and no vaccine has yet to be created. A person that has been infected by the HEV can contract it again if not careful. The best prophylaxis is to know what can cause the virus. Simple methods such as a use a food thermometer to make sure the food is cooked properly can eliminate the contamination via food. Pursuing this further the use of water filters can cut down the risk getting the HEV via water consumption. The key is to give these simple tools to the people to prevent another outbreak.
Public Health regulations also play a significant role in the spread of the virus. Water regulations are in a massive effect to protect our drinking waters, and we are lucky to have clear drinking tab water in the US. The clean water compliance act of 1972 regulated the amount of pollution admitted into our drinking waters.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates our meat and does random sampling of our pork and beef meat. These testing are done on regular basis to test for diseased animals and help further to prevent the spread of the Hepatitis E virus. The pork meat up for purchase that has been irradiated needs to be clearly marked, so the consumer knows the meat has been radiated to kill micro-organisms. This is an FDA regulation that ensures public health safety to all the consumers.
With proper care and guidance, the general public should be safe from contracting the Hepatitis E virus in America.



            Grierson, S., Hakze-van der Honing, R., Martelli, F., Johne, R., Reetz, J., & Berto, A. (2013). Hepatitis E virus in pork liver sausage, France. Emerging infectious disease, 19(2), dispatch. doi: 10.3201/eid1902.121255

Pathogen profile dictionary. (2010). Retrieved from

Teshale, E., Howard, C., Grytdal, S., Handzel, T., Barry, V., Kamili, S. (2010). Heaptitis E epidemic, Uganda. Emerging infectious disease, 16(1),dispatch. Doi: 10.3201/eid1601.090764


Evidence-Based Decisions

Evidence-Based Decisions

Evidence-Based Decisions

Several tools are available to integrate the greatest available information to the Public Health practice as well as policy making. The Promoting Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Can We Have Better Evidence and More Action? The article displays several tools that are used today they include: HIA, health impact assessment, which answers the question, is something should be done to improve the current health situation. Then there is the Systematic reviews tool that promotes transparency and public understanding. The last device is the portfolio of instruments that incorporate participatory research, reporting of qualitative data, economic impact and analyzing (Fielding & Briss, 2006).

Another tool that is useful is surveillance systems that report new materialize infectious disease. In addition to, the A Review of Strategies for Enhancing the Completeness of Notifiable Disease Reporting article, monitoring systems are the connection to Health Care Services and clinical labs to our Public Health sector (Silk & Berkelman, 2005).

The challenge of using scientific evidence to base decision-making on policies is that it can lead to a wrong outcome based on the environment and the random variation. However, Public Health is successful in decreasing the death toll caused by drunk drivers, improved workplace safety, and early childhood education. On the other hand, there is still a struggle with obesity in school age children. The gym program at my kids’ school is cut down to one-quarter of the school year because the focus is on producing better grades. As a result, this school physical health program is not effective in the long run.

Pursuing this further, the school lunch program has improved to incorporate vegetables and a side dish of fresh fruits. This active state change of better healthier foods can contribute to a decrease in obesity of our children.




            Fielding, J. E., & Briss, P. A. (2006). Promoting Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Can We Have Better Evidence And More Action?. Health Affairs, 25(4), 969-978. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.25.4.969

            Silk, B., & Berkelman, R. (2005). A review of strategies for enhancing the completeness of notifiable disease reporting. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 11(3), 191-200.      


Public Health Law

Public Health Law

Public Health Law

The Pennsylvania Department of Health (“Pennsylvania Department of,” ) offers many public services such as family planning and free influenza shots to the local communities. As well as our governor Tom Corbett provides free health care to all the state’s children.

The Regulation of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act also known as the HIPPAA is the most common regulation involving health care. This law protects the consumer because the hospital or medical service provider cannot publish the individual’s personal health information without the patient’s consent. The patient will be asked to sign an HIPPAA-compliant Release form.

The impact of the regulation helped the consumer to feel at ease that others cannot read their medical records without their signed permission. As an Administrative Assistant at my local hospital seven years ago, it was one of my duties to destroy medical charts/records as the patient was released from the hospital. As a result, the hospital was compliance with the HIPPAA regulation.

The Local Health Administration Law, Act 315 including amendments to May 1, 1995 (“Commonwealth enterprise portal,” ) was created to improve public health throughout all the counties in Pennsylvania. The State Department grants funding for various health department if they meet the requirements.

The great benefit of this law is that multiple health departments in different counties joined to create one large department. An excellent example of this is the Maternal and Family Health Service, Inc.(“About mfhs,”) they provide their family service to 16 Pennsylvania counties. Also, it is an excellent way to stretch the state funding to reach a wider audience.



About mfhs. (n.d.). Retrieved from

            Commonwealth enterprise portal. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Pennsylvania department of health. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Influences on Public health Response

Influences on Public health Response

Influences on Public health Response

There are several methods that play a part in how public health reacts to the supervision and control of prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

The economic factor plays a role in how public health can help the general public. Many states need funding to create and maintain the appropriate programs. Americans with higher income tend to have access to better health care, and the less fortunate should have access to care via government-funded programs.

Another factor that can hinder the progress of public health is politics. The government might pass a program, such as the Syringe Exchange Program also known as SEP. According to the article, Social and Political Factors Predicting the Presence of Syringe Exchange Programs in 96 US Metropolitan Areas some states might oppose this program and sees this agenda as a promotion of using intravenous drugs (Tempalski, Flom, Friedman, Des Jarlais, Friedman & McKnight, 2007) that can cause the spread of the HIV/AIDS virus.

Additionally, the value of individual liberty is also an issue Americans like a to have a choice and do not respond well of being ordered what they can and cannot do. A person with the HIV/AIDS virus has his or her right to privacy and laws are put into a place where these individuals cannot be harmed.

Religion and morals also play a role in how effective the public health can be to carry out their duties. Some religions oppose to how sex education should be taught and do not like the idea of teaching the younger generation about condom use. This is due to their believes that it will promote the practice of sex and create an increase in teenage pregnancies. The moral issues touch on how ethical public health practices are.

The primary challenge of controversy of the HIV/AIDS virus outside the U.S. is to implement a good health care system as well as to use media such as TV, radio and social media to promote education and prevention to the masses as well as to create a program such as the 100% Condom Program used in Thailand by its government (Levine, 2007).
Social justice focus on the needs of the less fortunate and the basic needs should be a universal right whereas market justice focuses on individual needs and his or her rights. Market justice drives America.

The political interference with basic science is evidence as per the textbook: Introduction to Public Health, as most new policies are driven by right winged organizations as well as large corporations (Schneider, 2011).


Levine, R. (2007). Case studies in global health millions saved. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Tempalski, B., Flom, P., Friedman, S., Des Jarlais, D., Friedman, J., McKnight, C., et al. (2007). Social and political factors predicting the presence of syringe exchange programs in 96 U.S. metropolitan areas. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 437-447.

Schneider, M. (2011). Introduction to public health. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Core Functions and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic

Core Functions and HIV/AIDS epidemic

Core Functions and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic

The HIV/AIDS epidemic has affected people worldwide. It has shown devastating results, especially in Africa.   It is estimated that 1.7 million people have been infected with the virus in the U.S. according to

The core functions of public health have helped contain this virus outbreak via the data sourcing of collecting information and conducting public and demographic surveys. It is important to monitor health status in every community to faster react to a potential new outbreak. This is done by the core assessment, which also helps in discovering health problems.

The Policy Development is just as important to help create new laws that can help the general public. According to the textbook Introduction to Public Health, the lawmakers do not have much consideration for Public Health as a hole (Schneider, 2011) this can be a setback to pass new laws, and further awareness to the public and get more funding for the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

It is important to have laws enforce to protect the community as well as the individual rights to privacy and the right to receive medical care as per the state regulations and laws. The Assurance function helps connect the public with resources that they need to protect their health.

One of the most efficient ways to bring awareness to the masses about the HIV and AIDS virus is to talk about it and educate people on the topic. The Media plays a crucial role in spreading the word about this issue, from celebrities endorsing organizations to TV shows like MTV spreading awareness of condom use, which helps prevent HIV infection to the younger generation. The Role of the Health Departments in Administration article states that the government support funds AIDS/HIV programs on the local level in communities to further spread awareness of this subject (The Role of, 2007).

Methods that appears less capable of covering the HIV/AIDS prevention. The more controversial issue is to introduce this topic into our school with sex education, and the use of condoms. Some parents still opt-out for their children to use contraception, even if it promotes safe sex. The awareness of how a person can contact the disease needs to be improved dramatically, people still thinks that they can contract AIDS by being in the same room as an HIV/AIDS patient.



(2007). The role of health departments in administering federal hiv/aids programs. Washington, DC: NASTAD AIDS Directors. Retrieved from of States.pdfSchneider, M. (2011).


Introduction to public health. (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Joans and Bartlett

Publishing. Retrieved from


Let nothing dim the light that shines from within – Maya angelou

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